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Today´s Kralupy nad Vltavou was formed not only as a result of economic development during the past 150 years, but also by uniting several neighbouring villages in the same period. The heart of the gradually arising traffic junction and industrial agglomeration was the former village Kralupy, situated originally by the local river ford.

Numerous evidence of the human presence in various archaeological cultures were found in the area of the old Kralupy – at least from the Neolithic Period, i.e. the early Stone Age. The name Kralupy /derived probably from the words “koru lúpati” (bark-peeling), i.e. to peel bark to get ooze for tanning fell/ is mentioned in the founding charter of the Břevnov Monastery claiming to come from 993, which is however a so called “modern counterfeit“ from 13th century. So, the first reliable mention of Kralupy comes from 1253, when the King Wenceslas I. confirms the possessions of St. Francis Hospital in Prague, which later became the Order of the Knights with the Red Star. The King donates to the order the village of Kralupy which has been confiscated from the heirs of the former vice-chamberlain of Queen Constance, Champnois, who had earlier appropriated it violently.

In the following years the Knights of the Cross raised Kralupy to a slightly higher level. They made a millstream from the brook and at the same time they used it as a source for the moat around their newly constructed fortress. The fortress stood approximately on the place now called “Na hrádku”, it had a cellar and was protected by a wall and the moat. The construction of the fortress probably brought the order into debts, as they then had to pledge the village to the Archbishop of Prague and the Bishop of Meissen. In 1377 Kralupy was redeemed again for 230 threescores of Czech groschen.
Later, in 1407, the Knights of the Cross sold the fortress together with the village for 350 threescores of Czech groschen to scrivener of the Old Town of Prague, John of Weilburg and his wife Catherine, who soon acquired also the neighbouring village of Lobeč. However, in 1421 the Hussite unrests drove this nobleman out of Bohemia and Prage burghers got hold of his possession. During that period the fortress and the village suffered considerable damage. In 1429 they were lent for use to John of Kačice. In post-hussite period the fortress and the village returned to the order of the Knights of the Cross, who did not maintain the damaged fortress any longer, though.

For the last time Kralupy got out of the Order´s long-lasting possession at the beginning of the Thirty Years' War. In 1619 the directors of the estates confiscated them and conveyed them to William the elder Popel of Lobkowicz. But in the period after the battle on Bílá Hora William´s property was confiscated and the Order resumes the possession of Kralupy. It belonged to the Knights of the Cross until the abolition of serfdom in 1848. That means that except for four apparently enforced breaks this village had belonged to the same authority for six hundred years, which is a rare case. Kralupy was a part of the Order´s farmstead Tursko, consisting otherwise only of Vrbno at Mělník and a part of nearby Dolany. Some authors state that in the 15th or 16th century Kralupy temporarily became a townlet, but there is no reliable base for such statement. On the other hand it is incontrovertibly known that in the first half of the 16th century 9 farmers lived here until around 1550 the number of buildings increased to 12 and at the beginning of the Thirty Years' War to 13. However, after the following disasters only 2 populated farms remained here in the middle of the 17th century. Although the village was soon restored, it developed very slowly, in 1840 it had 177 inhabitants and then in 1850 the population was 181 people in 23 homesteads.

When the importance of the Kralupy river ford ceased, the old Kralupy inhabitants mostly occupied themselves with farming.

From time immemorial also growing and drying fruits flourished here. Apart from the mill there was a tavern in the village and there had always been some craftsmen. There was no manor in Kralupy, so the serfs performed their corveé either on the local Knights´ meadows or had to go all the way to Tursko. However the authority had always been benevolent and preferred accepting subsistence or financial taxes.

The war events in the 18th and 19th centuries did not hit Kralupy much, except for the years 1741 and 1742 when the Saxons and French caused considerable damage. Apart from occasional poor crops and epidemics the village suffered mainly from floods. They came almost every year, but every several years they took on doomful character. Disastrous were the floods in 1784, 1845 and 1890.

The last mentioned flood hit old Kralupy after it had considerably grown and changed. Before the middle of the 19th century, when the village stretched only inside the bend from the today´s bakery over the Sokol athletic field to Palackého Square, the last remnants of the local fortress were cleared away. In 1851 the state railway line from Prague to Dresden was put into operation and in 1856 the Buštěhrad line with the reloading dock on the river Vltava opened. This laid the foundations of the Kralupy railway junction, which was extended in 1865 by the construction of the Kralupy – Turnov line and a new common station, then in 1882 by a connection to Velvary and in 1884 by the coal-line to Vinařice enabling also the connection with Slaný. The development of the river shipping had led to the regulation of the Vltava in 1894.

The railway and river transportation enabled the establishment of a number of enterprises. Many businessmen use suitable locations for building their factories, the price of land rises. In 1854 the shipyard producing both wooden and metal vessels was founded and in 1857 the first real factory opened – a chemical factory called Jordánka, which employed 600 people in its heyday. In 1867 the steam-mill of the Karpeles family was put into operation – later a member of this family, later known as Jiří (Georges) Kars, became a famous painter. In 1868-69 two sugar factories and in 1872 a brewery opened. At the same time the Masner family opened their first sand quarries and brickworks.
All of the above mentioned processes naturally brought about the need of the development of infrastructure. After the inflow of new inhabitants the relatively small and distant school in Minice represented a problem, so Kralupy, Lobeč and Debrno came to agreement and in 1867 the two-class elementary school in Kralupy was open. The first headmaster was a prominent educator Karel Chmel. The need of fast communication led to the extension of the post office and to installing the telegraph (in 1873).

This stage of the transformation of the village into a town culminates in 1881 (22.6.), when Kralupy is promoted to a townlet and in 1884 its town emblem is confirmed. In 1880 the population of Kralupy and the neighbouring, gradually joined, Lobeč was 2 968 people in 212 houses.

The general growth of the community continued in the 80´s and 90´s. The existing companies were joined by a group of metalworking and metallurgical enterprises. As early as in 1879 Pejšek´s motor factory started production. Later the following companies were established: Jaroš´s, Kochman´s and Sommer´s machine works, Ehrmann´s agricultural machine works, Červenka´s foundry. Such industrial growth increased the risk of fire, so in 1882 the Voluntary Fire Brigade was founded. Further increase of population was manifested by the building of the second and later of the third school (in 1883 the school for girls – nowadays the practical school, and in 1901 the boys´ school – nowadays the Komenského Basic School). The greater importance of Kralupy was testified by the establishment of an independent parish with a church (1895), which was an essential precondition for the promotion to a town. Two years later (1897) the municipal cemetery was established.

In 1900 the 372 houses in Kralupy and Lobeč were occupied by 4.722 people.

These people also wanted to spend their free time meaningfully, therefore many clubs and associations of different orientation. In 1880 Craftsmen-readers´ Forum - popular education organization which organised theatre performances, concerts, lectures and balls. At the end of the century its library became the foundation of the municipal library. In 1884 the local Sokol organization was established, which finihed the construction of its own gymnasium 10 years later (nowadays a restaurant, formerly the Střed cinema). In 1904 the Czech gymnastic organization Sokol split – the Workers´ Gymnastic Union separated because of ideological disagreement. In 1901 the local Sports Club was founded.

Also the workers growing in number establish their organizations: in 1881 the Union of Mutual Workers´ Support, focused on education and support in unemployment or sickness. After 1890 new, political organizations appeared. In 1899 the co-op Svépomoc began its operation, apart from the mill (in Rybova street) it owned warehouses and shops not only in the townlet, but also in the nearby villages.

The logical culmination of this stage of the Kralupy townlet was its promotion to a town (22.11. 1902), connected with the change of its name to Kralupy nad Vltavou /this reflected the actual adjunction of the neighbouring Lobeč/.

The following years as well saw the town´s continued development. Right in 1901 the mineral oil refinery was put into operation, then Kratina´s radiator factory, in 1912 Dobiáš´ cork-processing factory and in 1913 the distillery. The expansion of industry also required the establishment of financial institutions: in 1905 the Municipal Savings Bank was founded, in 1906 the Civic Credit Union and later the Credit Union for Trade and Business.

The culmination of this whole process was an “institutional” confirmation of the town´s significance, in 1912 the District Court was established and in 1913 the District Hetman´s Office. In 60 years Kralupy nad Vltavou had turned from a meaningless village into a town with many enterprises and offices, with the population of almost 6000 inhabitants and the centre of a district with 46 settlements.

Although World War I did not affect the town directly, it had a strong influence on the life of the district. The town was garrisoned (in the boys´ school) and military transports passed through it by rail. Small military patrols guarded the tunnels. In the restaurant Slávie and in the Sokol organization gymnasium military hospitals were established. All citizens were affected by requisitions (official confiscation of possession for military use), no matter if they had to give their corn, cows or horses. Even the church bells were requisitioned and turned into cannon barrels.

Citizens of Kralupy among the Czechoslovak legionnaires participated in their historic fights at all battlefronts. Many men returned as heroes hailed by the nation (major Jezvina, warrant officer Straka), many of them never saw their town again.
The end of the World War and the constitution of the new republic (1918) was celebrated tumultuously in Kralupy, too. The first events happened as early as on 14 October, everything burst out 14 days later.

Although in this period several new enterprises were established, too : the Czech Chemical Factory (1920), the First Czech Incorporated Veneer Factory (1921) and the company Maggi (1925) in the former sugar refinery near the railway station; constructed were rather buildings important for the course of the town and facilitating the life of its inhabitants growing in number – in 1937 the population topped ten thousand.

In 1920 the electrification of the town started, in 1924 the creeks were embanked and subsequently in 1928 a new ferroconcrete road bridge across the Vltava river was open. The viaducts in the town were reconstructed in relation to laying the second rail in the direction of Děčín (1928). The town´s care of the young generation was manifested by the foundation of the grammar school (1923), which was given a new building seven years later. Thanks to a group of enthusiasts a sports aerodrome was put into operation in Lobeček in 1937.

In the sphere of arts especially the choir and orchestra Fibich and the choir of the Sokol organization became outstanding.

Immediately after the war the territorial expansion of the new town arose when in 1919 the adjunction of Lobeček was permitted and in 1923 Míkovice was attached.

The World War II period raised a wave of resistance in Kralupy, too. Two independent groups of resistance emerged: the group of the Sokol resistance connected to the group National Defence (its members were Mašín, Morávek, Balabán), later denominated after its leader captain Čermák; the other was a group of the communist resistance. After the assassination of the German despot Heydrich both groups were considerably decimated, many members laid down their lives, however they persisted in their activities to the very end of the war. At the time of the May Uprising (1945) they successfully came out against the German force represented by the local garrison and the armoured trains passing through Kralupy. In May 1942 the German administration cancelled the district of Kralupy and attached its territory to the neighbouring district of Roudnice. Immediately after the war the Kralupy district was restored, however.

In spite of the difficult war conditions the cultural life was relatively rich: the performances of amateur actors, balls and especially the magnificent celebrations of the hundredth anniversary of Antonín Dvořák´s birthday in 1941, which everyone viewed as an anti-German protest.

However, the town suffered the most severe blow by the allies´ not very successful air-raid on the local mineral oil refinery on 22 March 1945, which brought about vast death toll and material damage (150 people were killed, 116 buildings destroyed and over 900 buildings damaged). Some results of the bombing can still be seen today.

The Revolutionary National Committee which was established on 5 May 1945 developed into the local National Committee as this level of state administartion was called at that time. Both national committees, the local and the district one, were going to face many difficult decisions and unpredictable complications.

People celebrated the end of the war really noisily and cheerfully, they hailed the victors, without anticipating the consequences of this liberation. The communist party became very popular, its representatives had been in majority in the municipal self-government since the first revolutionary committee. This was confirmed by the elections in 1946, when the second strongest party was the National Socialist Party. Neither its members nor anyone else could prevent the subsequent historic events from happening. After the communist takeover in 1948 the rival parties were either banned (the National Socialist Party) or merged with the communist party (Social Democratic Party), which opened completely new prospects for the communists… Immediately after the war in Kralupy the possessions of “Germans (spelled with a small initial letter at that time), collaborator and traitors” were nationalized. And there was a lot to nationalize as during the war 176 local citizens claimed German natinality. Detention camps for Germans were established (Wippermann´s factory, Míkovice yard, later the area adjacent to the aerodrome in Lobeček). The February coup in 1948 “solved” numerous complicated possession disputes (for example originally Jewish possession was confiscated during the war and transferred to Aryan owners, then nationalized after the war) by the nationalization of all big possessions both in towns and in the country. For example, in 1950 there were 196 non-trade small businesses in Kralupy, 10 years later only 2.

In the same manner as entrepreneurs and tradesmen “voluntarily” joined the state-owned companies called “Pramen” or “Masna”, the farmers “voluntarily” established united co-operative farms unless their possession was nationalized directly and incorporate into the state farms. The decisive period for the socialization of the countryside were the years 1952-1953 – and in Kralupy too were several dozens of private farmers. By 1960 practically all private property had dissolved. However, even this period had some successful points in Kralupy, especially regarding construction. Apart from the air–raid (22.3. 1945) the town was also heavily damaged by the flood after the pond dam under Okoř burst (at night between 14th and 15th March 1947). The extent of damage can be illustrated by the sum of 5 710 000 crowns raised by various public collections. The consequences of the bombing and the flood had been being removed during the whole 50´s and in places can still be seen today. In 1945-1954 mainly the service networks were constructed: water and gas pipelines, sewerage, public lightning, roads and pavements were reconstructed. For example in 1953 the construction of the sewage water treatment plant started. Various nationalized factories were modernized. And in 1958 the first volunteers came to help construct the “the Construction of the Young” the Kaučuk chemical plant and the adjacent housing estate. The growth in the town´s population brought about the need of another school building, so in 1952 the Klement Gottwald basic school was open in Lobeček (originally named after the communist tyrant, today called Třebízského). Also the district national committee received a new building (nowadays a hospital).

In 1950 the population of Kralupy was 9 402 inhabitants and 1 847 houses. Ten years later the numbers increased to 11 106 inhabitants and 2 146 houses. The majority of homes were then flats with two rooms, the average living area in one flat was 34 square metres.

In 1960 an important change in the state administration took place. Districts merged and new regions originated. Kralupy lost its status of district town, the majority of the former district area was attached to the district of Mělník, other parts to the districts Kladno, Prague – West and Prague – East. A poor compensation was the incorporation of the village Minice which occured in the same year.